1. What are the problems mentioned in the text? Name them and express your opinion about them.
Human health is directly linked to the environment therefore it is seriously affected by environmental pollution. Environmental pollution issues, such as those mentioned in the text, are:
- Contamination of lakes, rivers and seas from domestic waste water, industrial waste, mineral oils and other kinds of chemicals.
- Air pollution due to the …. industries in residential areas, and motor vehicle exhaust gas.
- Noise pollution from factories, traffic, airports and construction activities.
- Contamination of agricultural soil from fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides etc.
- Destruction of forests due to negligent or even actionable fires.
- Ecologically unsustainable waste management (recycling, for example) and waste disposal in unsuitable locations.
- Lack of monitoring in food preservation. Fertilizers, pesticides and toxic substances in food.
- Apartment buildings as a housing/residential issue: building regulations, spatial planning, total lack of green in areas and parks, scant sports facilities and only very few cultural and recreation centers and playgrounds.
2. The text contains a great number of words, phrases and terms related to the environment and its destruction. Which of these words can be used in the following table and what is their meaning?
- Domestic waste water (sewages)
- Industrial waste (factories’ useless materlias/substances)
- Oil pollution (leakage in ships)
- Pesticides and herbicides
- Detergents (chemical means for the removal of dirt and grease)
- Noise pollution (industries, traffic, airports and construction activities).
- Factories in residential areas: air pollution.
- Apartment buildings as a residential/housing issue.
- Fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides (chemical substances for rapid plant growth)
- Waste disposal
Other environmental challenges
Fertilizers, pesticides and toxic substances used in food production. Advertising and standardization of food consumption.
3. Find the causes and the effects of the destruction of the environment and suggest ways for its savior.
Causes of destruction of the environment:
- Industrial development: factory waste disposal in rivers and seas, air pollution from funnel emissions (acid rain);
- Technological development (motor vehicles – exhaust gas) and new products containing ozone-depleting substances;
- Clearing of vast areas for the establishment of arable lands due to population boom;
- Nuclear tests organized by the major powers, and nuclear accidents;
- Fires (negligent or actionable);
- Indifference and lack of environmental awareness;
- Fertilizer, pesticide and waste disposal in seas and on the ground;
- Noise pollution;
- Lack of waste treatment and use.
Effects of destruction of the environment:
- Sea and river pollution causes massive deaths of fish and their gradual elimination in some areas.
- Acid rain kills oxygen-providing forests.
- Exhaust gas emissions create a stifling atmosphere, particularly in big cities. The increase in carbon dioxide levels in some cities is considered so dangerous, that some days it is necessary for citizensto wear face masks.
- Ozone depletion results in the increase of UVB penetration of the Earth’s atmosphere, the aggravation of greenhouse effect and to rising sea levels (so it is likely that some areas will disappear off the face of the Earth).
- Forests, the Earth’s lungs, are destroyed so that millions of people can feed.
- Water and soil contamination due to toxic waste being disposed in the sea, or buried underground to avoid costly processing.
- Nuclear tests strip vast areas off every sign of life. Nuclear accidents in nuclear power plants have tragic consequences for the area and the people (casualties, diseases and fetal deformations, for years after the accident).
- War destroys everything it touches, leaving nothing but death in its wake.
- Fires have recently become a scourge, scorching green areas and living creatures all over the world.
- There are many endangered animal species (some other species are already extinct) due to inconsiderate and relentless hunting.
- Several ship accidents have resulted in leakages of vast amounts of oil, destroying marine life.
- Lack of environmental education/awareness breeds citizens who stand indifferent and unaware before the ongoing, slow but steady death of our planet, a death that will finally eliminate mankind.
Ways to save the environment:
- People must cultivate environmental awareness through school, family and lifelong environmental education.
- Yes to industrial and technological development, but always in line with the principles of environmental protection.
- Conservation of wildlife and forests all over the world through the adoption of a strict global legislation.
- Finding and use of new, more eco-friendly energy resources, thus limiting environmental pollution.
- Strict control and heavy penalties for industrialists who act against the law and destroy the environment for the sake of their own financial interests.
- Nuclear weapons and test ban.
- Strict legislation against endangered species hunting. Suggestion of alternative ways of food resources for families resorting to hunting as it is the only way to feed.
- Engagement of all countries in order to protect the environment – strengthening and support of Greenpeace.